Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Writing system

There are three writing systems for Sarāikī, though very few Sarāikī speakers—even those literate in other languages — are able to read or write their own language in any writing system. The most common Sarāikī writing system today is the Perso-Arabic script, which has also been adapted for use on computers. Saraiki has a 42-letter alphabet including 37 of the Urdu alphabet and five letters unique to Saraiki. The Saraiki keyboard can also be used for other languages such as Punjabi & Kashmiri. The Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts, written from left to right, were used by Hindus. Though not used in present-day Pakistan, there are still emigrant speakers in India who know the Devanagari or Gurmukhi scripts for Sarāikī.[22][23] Traders or bookkeepers wrote in a script known as Langdi, although use of this script has been significantly reduced in recent times. The transliteration from and to Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts for Saraiki language can be made online.[24]
In the process of creating a distinct Sarāikī written language, activists have paid attention to creating a standard script and orthographic norms. Orthographic and linguistic standardization of Sarāikī seems more connected with the politics of identity. Although Saraiki shares four implosive sounds with Sindhi, care was taken so that the Saraiki script and the representation of these symbols should be different from that of Sindhi so that the Sindhis should not lay any claims over Saraiki literature as theirs.[citation needed]

[edit] Saraiki in Sindh

In Sindh Saraiki is widely spoken in Kashmore, Jacobabad, Shikarpur and Ghotki.

[edit] Saraiki in Balochistan

In Balochistan Saraiki is widely spoken in Barkhan, Naseerabad, Jafarabad and Jhal Magsi.

[edit] Saraiki in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Saraiki is native language in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank .

[edit] Saraiki in India

In India Saraiki is spoken in Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar, Bhiwani, Panipat districts of Haryana, some area of Delhi and Ganganagar district,Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan.It is also spoken some parts of Punjab.It is spoken at low scale.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b c Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001, Census of India (retrieved 19 March 2008)
  2. ^ a b Rahman 1997:838
  3. ^ a b c Shackle 1977
  4. ^ Javaid 2004
  5. ^ A.H. Dani, Sindhu-Sauvira: A glimpse into the early history of Sind In Hameeda Khusro (ed), Sind Through The Centuries (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1981) pp. 35-42
  6. ^ Department of Saraiki, IUB
  7. ^ Department of Saraiki, BZU
  8. ^ District Government, Bahawalpur
  9. ^ District Government, Multan
  10. ^ Population by Mother Tongue, Website of the Population Census organization of Pakistan
  11. ^ Broadcasts in Different Languages, Website of Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation
  12. ^ "Introduction". Afghan Hindu. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  13. ^ Masica 1991:18, 20
  14. ^ Grierson 1904-1928, volume of 1919. "Lahnda" was his novel designation for various dialects up to then called "Western Punjabi", spoken north, west, and south of Lahore. The local dialect of Lahore is the Majhi dialect of Punjabi, which has long been the basis of standard literary Punjabi.
  15. ^ a b Grierson 1919:239ff.
  16. ^ a b Masica 1991, Appendix I:220-245
  17. ^ The spelling with retroflex 'Ḍ' instead of 'D' is according to Masica 1991.
  18. ^ Pakistan census 1998
  19. ^ "Colonies, posh and model in name only!". NCR Tribune. Retrieved 2007-12-16. 
  20. ^ "Seraiki". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2007-07-14. 
  21. ^ Masica 1991
  22. ^ "Multani poets relive memories of struggle". Indian Express. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  23. ^ Balfour 1885: 1095
  24. ^ Saraiki Online Transliteration

[edit] References

  • Asif, Saiqa Imtiaz. 2005. Saraiki Language and Ethnic Identity Journal of Research (Faculty of Languages and Islamic Studies), 7: 9-17. Multan (Pakistan): Bahauddin Zakariya University.
  • Balfour, Edward. 1885. The cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: commercial, industrial and scientific, products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures. Volume 3; Entry on "Multani Writing". London: B. Quaritch. Google Books view.
  • Grierson, George A. 1919. Linguistic survey of India. vol. VIII, Part 1. Calcutta. Reprinted 1968 by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
  • HEC, Islamabad pakistn.Letter No. 20-/R7D/09 -5243 Dated 20-01-2010.
  • Javaid, Umbreen. 2004. Saraiki political movement: its impact in south Punjab. Journal of Research (Humanities), 40(2): 55–65. Lahore: Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of the Punjab. (This PDF contains multiple articles from the same issue.)
  • Masica, Colin. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pakistan. 1998. Population and Housing Census of Pakistan.
  • Rahman, Tariq. 1997. Language and Ethnicity in Pakistan. Asian Survey, 1997 Sep., 37(9):833-839.
  • Shackle, C. 1976. The Saraiki language of central Pakistan: a reference grammar. London:School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).
  • Shackle, C. 1977. Saraiki: A Language Movement in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies, 11(3):379-403.

[edit] Further reading


  1. I love all saraikies who are living in india and Pakistan and I hate Muhammad bin Qasim who attack on Sindh valley and killed many sarikies and sindhies

  2. there is no deference between ranjeet singh and Muhammad bin qasim booths are the attacker and killers of sarikies and sindhies the booths nation are very poor because the spend many of time in servants so these are ignorant because these were servant previously they were servant of urab and know they are servant of punjabies

  3. سرائیکی لکھݨ کیتے سرائیکی کی بورڈ ݙاؤن لوڈ کرو۔